Chromium is a heavy metal that is most toxic in its hexavalent (Cr VI) state. The EPA and WHO has labeled Cr VI compounds as a potential carcinogen, either by inhalation and ingestion through contaminated water. Today, the EPA is undergoing a process to further evaluate the health effects of chromium in drinking water, to decide whether to lower the Minimum Quality Level (MQL) below the current standard of 100 parts per billion (ppb).
Both Cr VI and Cr III exist naturally in the environment, and are present in water from the erosion of chromium deposits found in rocks and soils. Cr VI is also produced by a long list of industrial processes and manufacturing activities including electroplating, dye factories, wood preservation and tanneries. At many of these locations, chromium compounds have been released to the environment via leakage, poor storage, or improper disposal practices.
In 1991, EPA has an enforceable drinking water standard of 100 ppb for total chromium, which includes both Cr VI and Cr III. Since then, the toxicology of Cr VI has been re-evaluated in a National Toxicology Program by the Department of Health and Human Services, identifying chromium as a greater health risk than previously believed. These findings have prompted the EPA to consider lowering the MQL significantly (in the range of 2 to 20 ppb), which will inevitably lead to a large-scale investment in new solutions to meet these new regulations.
ToxSorb for Drinking Water
ToxSorb’s MAC exhibits an extraordinary ability to selectively remove Cr (VI) from drinking water to the levels required by the EPA (<10ppb), even in unfavorable water matrixes with a high ionic competition including nitrates, chlorides and sulfates. Additionally, our MAC has the ability to catalyze the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during the regeneration stage, which is both simple and cost-effective since Cr(III) has no affinity to the adsorbent. The resulted brine contains only Cr (III), which is much easier to precipitate – thus, the regeneration solution can be reused for several cycles. This is a major advantage that separates ToxSorb’s MAC from every other chromium solution on the market.
ToxSorb’s media is NSF approved for drinking water (NSF Std 61).
ToxSorb for Industrial Wastewater
ToxSorb’s MAC is also an ideal choice for industrial applications, such as the electro-plating or galvanic industry. ToxSorb’s MAC can be installed as a Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) system attached to the washing basins in the factory, or as an End-of-Pipe system, depending on the clients needs.
Today, ToxSorb has been operating on an industrial application of chromium removal for the Israeli Weapon’s Industry for over 3 years, removing high loadings of Cr VI in their washing basins and maintaining an average electro-conductivity below 50 mS. In this case, the exchangeable ion presented to the industrial systems by using the MAC systems does not contribute to the salinity and therefor reduces dramatically the client’s evacuation costs.
Tap Water with Absorbent (Cr) Concentration 2.5% w/w
ToxSorb compared its MAC media to a leading ion exchange resin. While both medias demonstrated removal rates of 99%, only ToxSorb’s MAC demonstrated high recovery rates of chromium (>88%).